Mary Mae's Substitutions
1 cup cake flour......1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

1 TBS Flour, for thickening....1 egg, 2 egg whites, or 2 egg yolks, 1-1/2 Tbsp. whole-wheat flour

1 cup, sifted Flour, for baking (all-purpose flour)...... 1/2 cup whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

1 cup Flour, whole wheat...... 1/2 cup whole wheat flour and 1/2 all-purpose flour

1 Tbsp Flour, all-purpose....1 1/2 tsp cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato (for thickening)starch or rice starch, 1 Tbsp granular tapioca, 1 Tbsp waxy rice flour, 1 Tbsp waxy corned flour, 2 Tbsp browned flour, 1 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour, 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour and 1/2 Tbsp all-purpose flour

1 cup sifted Flour, all-purpose ...... 1 cup and 2 Tbsp cake flour, 1 cup minus 2 Tbsp unsifted all-purpose flour,rye flour or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour, 3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour, 1 cup rye or rice flour, 1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
Note: Specialty 1 1/2 cup bread crumbs, flours added to 1 cup rolled oats, yeast bread recipes 1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour will result in a and 2/3 cup all purpose flour, reduced volume 1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, a heavier product.

1 cup sifted cake Flour...... 1 cup minus 2 Tbsp sifted all-purpose flour

1 cup Flour, self-rising.....1 cup minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour and 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt

Flour whole wheat substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4-1/2 of white flour called for in recipe
1 square (1 ounce) unsweetened chocolate......3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon shortening or cooking oil, or 1-ounce envelope premelted unsweetened chocolate product

6 squares (6 ounces) semisweet chocolate........6 ounces semisweet chocolate pieces, or 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup shortening

4 squares (4 ounces) German sweet cooking chocolate........1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons shortening

1 ounce Chocolate chips, semisweet..... 1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate

1 ounce Chocolate, unsweetened........3 Tbsp. cocoa plus 1 TbTbsp. fat

1 ounce Chocolate, unsweetened .......3 Tbsp. cocoa plus 1 Tbsp. fat, 3 Tbsp. carob plus 2 Tbsp. water

1-2/3 ounce Chocolate, semisweet ........1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp. sugar

1/4 cup Cocoa .....1 ounce chocolate and omit 1/2 Tbsp. fat
Herbs.....1/2 tsp. dried = 1/4 tsp. ground = 2-3 tsp. freshly minced

1 Tbsp. dried Mint ......1/4 cup chopped, fresh

fresh or dried 3 heads Dill plant....1 Tbsp dill seed

1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.....1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/4 teaspoon ground allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg

1 teaspoon apple pie spice.....1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and dash ground ginger

1 teaspoon poultry seasoning......3/4 teaspoon dried sage, crushed, plus 1/4 teaspoon dried thyme, crushed, or dried marjarom, crushed

1 clove garlic.....1/2 teaspoon bottled minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

Allspice.......1/2 tsp. cinnamon & 1/2 tsp. ground cloves

1 whole Bay leaf .....1/4 tsp.crushed

3 Tbsp Carob ........1 ounce chocolate

2 teaspoons Chives, fresh ......2 tsp. chopped green onion tops
1 cup light cream or half-and-half....1 tablespoon melted butter plus enough milk to make 1 cup

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Mary Mae